数据结构——字符串的基本操作

/************************
author's email:wardseptember@gmail.com
data:2017.12.16
************************/
#include<iostream>
#include <stdio.h>
using namespace std;
typedef struct {
	char *ch;
	int length;
}Str;
void initstr(Str *str);//初始化字符串
int strassign(Str &str, char *ch);//赋值
void printstring(Str str);//输出字符串
int strlength(Str str);//求字符串长度
int strcompare(Str s1, Str s2);//比较两个字符串
int concat(Str &str, Str str1, Str str2);//连接两个字符串
int substring(Str &subsstr, Str str, int pos, int len);//取主串的子串
int clearstring(Str &str);//清空字符串
int main() {
	Str str,s1,s2,strcat,substr;
	char ch1[50],ch2[50];
	initstr(&str);
	initstr(&s1);
	initstr(&s2);
	initstr(&strcat);
	initstr(&substr);
	strassign(str, "input string");
	printstring(str);
	cout << "字符串的长度为:" << strlength(str)<<endl;

	cout << "请输入串1:";
	gets_s(ch1);
	cout << "请输入串2:";
	gets_s(ch2);
	strassign(s1, ch1);
	strassign(s2, ch2);
	//printstring(s1);
	//printstring(s2);
	cout << "两串比较,若结果大于0,则串1 ASCLL大于串2 ASCLL。结果为:";
	cout<<strcompare(s1, s2)<<endl;

	concat(strcat, s1, s2);
	cout << "两串连接后为:";
	printstring(strcat);


	cout << "取得子串为:";
	substring(substr, strcat, 3, 7);
	printstring(substr);


	cout << "清空所有字符串。"<<endl;
	clearstring(str);
	clearstring(s1);
	clearstring(s2);
	clearstring(strcat);
	clearstring(substr);
	cout << "所有字符串均被清空。" << endl;
	return 0;
}
void initstr(Str *str) {
	str->ch = NULL;
	str->length = 0;
}
int strassign(Str &str, char *ch) {
	if (str.ch)
		free(str.ch);
	int len = 0;
	char *c = ch;
	while (*c) {
		++len;
		++c;
	}
	if (len == 0) {
		str.ch = NULL;
		str.length = 0;
		return 1;
	}
	else
	{
		str.ch = (char*)malloc(sizeof(char)*(len + 1));
		if (str.ch == NULL)
			return 0;
		else {
			c = ch;
			for (int i = 0; i <= len; ++i) {
				str.ch[i] = *c;
				++c;
			}
			str.length = len;
			return 1;
		}
	}
}

void printstring(Str str) {
	for (int i = 0; i < str.length; ++i)
		cout << str.ch[i];
	cout << endl;
}
int strlength(Str str) {
	return str.length;
}
int strcompare(Str s1, Str s2) {
	for (int i = 0; i < s1.length&&i < s2.length; ++i)
		if (s1.ch[i] != s2.ch[i])
			return s1.ch[i] - s2.ch[i];
	return s1.length - s2.length;
}
int concat(Str &str, Str str1, Str str2) {
	if (str.ch) {
		free(str.ch);
		str.ch = NULL;
	}
	str.ch = (char*)malloc(sizeof(char)*(str1.length + str2.length + 1));
	if (str.ch == NULL)
		return 0;
	int i = 0;
	while (i < str1.length) {
		str.ch[i] = str1.ch[i];
		i++;
	}
	int j = 0;
	while (j <=str2.length) {
		str.ch[i + j] = str2.ch[j];
		++j;
	}
	str.length = str1.length + str2.length;
	return 1;
}
int substring(Str &substr, Str str, int pos, int len) {
	if (pos < 0 || pos >= str.length || len < 0 || len > str.length - pos)
		return 0;
	if (substr.ch) {
		free(substr.ch);
		substr.ch = NULL;
	}
	if (len == 0) {
		substr.ch = NULL;
		substr.length = 0;
		return 1;
	}
	else
	{
		substr.ch = (char*)malloc(sizeof(char)*(len + 1));
		int i = pos;
		int j = 0;
		while (i < pos + len) {
			substr.ch[j] = str.ch[i];
			++i;
			++j;
		}
		substr.ch[j] = '\0';
		substr.length = len;
		return 1;
	}
}
int clearstring(Str &str) {
	if (str.ch) {
		free(str.ch);
		str.ch = NULL;
	}
	str.length = 0;
	return 1;
}

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